1Ebbi Donald Robinson,1Solomon Obioha, 1Kue David Soghian, 1Igani Joshua Iselema
1Rivers State University Teaching Hospital
Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a pivotal role in the cytopathological management of thyroid disease by providing a précised evaluation of thyroid lesions. This interventional radiologic procedure is minimally invasive, readily available and affordable. The study is aimed at evaluating the spectrum of radiologic and cytologic findings of thyroid disorders using ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology.
Material(s) and Method(s):
One hundred and twenty-one (121) patients referred for ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid gland participated in the study. The study was carried out at the interventional radiology unit of the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt from September 2020 to August 2021. After obtaining informed consent, age and anthropometric parameters were taken. Patients had standard exposure and position for the study. Using an ultrasound machine (Logic F6, General Electric, USA, 2017), fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear transducer, the thyroid gland was scanned to locate the thyroid lesion. With a 20ml syringe and a 23G by 11/2 inch needle, cells were aspirated from the thyroid lesion. Dry and wet slide smears were immediately prepared and subsequently taken to the histopathology laboratory for analysis. The data obtained were analysed using a statistical package for social science version 21.0 (SPSS INC. CHICAGO, IL, USA).
Males and females constitute 23(19.01%) and 98(80.99%) respectively with a mean age (+SD) of 41.33+3.11years. Radiological evaluation revealed that 86.78% (n=105) of the thyroid glands were enlarged with radiologic diagnosis of thyroid malignancy (n=11; 9.00%), thyroiditis (n=24; 19.83%), thyroid nodule (n=47; 38.84%) and thyroid nodules with cystic degeneration (n=39; 32.23%). Cytological findings revealed, non-diagnostic sample (thy1/c) category (n=2; 1.65%), benign colloid nodule (n=52; 42.98%), follicular neoplasm (n=7; 5.79%), and thyroiditis (n=21; 17.36%).
Image-guided FNAC is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with the majority of the thyroid lesions being benign.